This lesson is about certain particles called verb-like particles because they chnage the meaning of the sentence and the case of the subject of the nominal sentence. This group is called inna and its sisters  إن و أخواتها . The lesson includes recording of each part and the examples as well. Listen and learn how to say these verb-like particles. The first recording goes clockwise.
•These particles (inna and its sisters) have full meaning ONLY when they are within a context.
•They occur at the beginning of a nominal sentence.
•When the nominal sentence begins with one of these particles,
        - the subject of the nominal sentence becomes noun of the relevant particle and,
        - the predicate of the nominal sentence becomes predicate of the relevant particle.
•The following changes take place:
Notice how the subject in the nominal sentence which is 'knowledge' علم  has dhamma as a sign of the nominative case. When the sententence is started with inna  إن  or one of its sisters the subject loses dhamma ضمة and gains fatha فتحة.
 
We notice that the subject has changed its case from the nominative case i.e. ending with Dhammah (ُ) into the accusative case i.e. ending with FatHa (َ ). The subject then is called (inna’s noun) ism inna. The predicate, as it is clear from the example is left as it has been before ‘inna’ or one of its sisters are used. The predicate is called ‘inna’s’ predicate khabar inna.
The meanings of إن  and its sisters

The noun of inna ( ism inna)
Examples: the noun after inna or its sisters
 
Examples: the pronouns with inna or its sisters
The predicate of inna or its sisters can be :
When ‘inna’  is  connected to (ما), the za’eeda (the extra) it becomes (إنَّما). When (ما) is annexed to ‘inna’ and its sisters, the noun after (إنَّما) ends with ‘Dhammah’ instead of ‘fatHa’. The word za’eeda (زائدة) means extra or additional. In other words, it has no semantic function. Therefore, it can be omitted.

The end of the lesson

 
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