Learn to Read Arabic from Scratch: Lesson Two
This lesson will cover: five consonants, two vowels, and the double consonant:


This consonant is the same as the English sound spelled th in mother, either, soothe. It is a voiced sound ( the articulation of a voiced sound causes vibration in the vocal cords which can be felt if you put your finger on your throat.) It is different from the voiceless sound, also spelled th, that is found in thin, tooth, ether. Voiceless sounds cause no vibration in the vocal cords. This letter is called ðaal. It is non-connective, and is exactly like  د  d in its two shapes.  ذ is written exactly like   د with the addition of a dot above it.
 
Try to read the following items. They all begin with ذ .The recording goes from the column first from the right downwards.
Try to read the following items. Some begin with ذ , others with د  . The recording goes from the column first from the right downwards.
Try to read the following items. They have  ذ  in various positions.


This consonant is the same as the English t. It is called taa’    تاء   . In terms of shape it is exactly like  ب   except it has two dots above instead of one below.
Using your previous knowledge of the letters you have studied in the first lesson and try to read the following items. They have   ت   t in various positions.


This consonant is the same as the English f. It is called faa’     ف  .  This letter is written on the line.
Using your previous knowledge of the letters you have studied in the first lesson and try to read the following items. They have     ف  f   in various positions. Name each position.  The recording goes from the first columns downwards.


This consonant is the same as the English y. It is called yaa’   ي. It has the following shapes.  the
The initial and medial shapes of yaa ي are exactly like those of ب    and ت  except for the number or position of dots.
The final position shape ( independent or connected) is written below the line, whereas, the medial and initial position shape is written on the line.

In some Arabic publications, e.g., those of Egypt, final position shape (when isolated or connected to a preceding letter only) is written WITHOUT the two dots.
 Read the the following items and notice the various positions of ي   :The recording goes from the column first from the right downwards.


This consonant is pronounced exactly as the English m. It is called meem   م   . It has the following shapes.
Note that the shapes joined to preceding letter are joined from above. The circle of the letter is on the line while the tail goes below the line. Read the following items and spot the positions of meem. The recording goes from the first column from the right downwards.


As the case of َ a and  ا aa , the long vowel و uu is about twice as long in duration as the short ُ  u. The Arabic name for u is    ضمَّة       'dhamma'.  Read, listen and notice the contrast between u and uu.
At the end of a word, the short vowel u and the long vowel uu are not distinguished in pronunciation, except in extremely precise speech: they are both pronounced with the vowel of moon, but shorter. Listen, read and notice the contrast in final u/uu.
The long vowel uu is represented by the letter   و  which also represents the consonant  w (see previous lesson). If   و follows  u  ُ , it represents uu as in   دُود   Otherwise, it represents w as in   دَوْد  In vocalized (voweled) texts, it is customary to omit dhamma  ُ     before  و    uu. The folowing table includes items with w and uu.
Try reading the following and spot the contrast between uu and w. The recording goes from the column first from the right downwards.


Any Arabic consonant can be doubled, that is prolonged in its pronunciation. A double consonant is indicated by the sign ّ    written above the consonant letter.  In Arabic, a doubled consonant is not written twice, unless separated by a vowel. In other words every double consonant is the repetition of one consonant. The first consonant has sukuun while the second has a short vowel. e.g.,
Arabic has double consonants in a very great number of words of all types. In many cases, it is only the single versus the double consonant which distinguishes two words of quite different meaning; therefore it is very important to learn to recognize and pronounce double consonants correctly.
Try to read the following pairs of words where one item of each pair has a doubled consonant and the other has a single one.
Read the following and focus on the double consonants

End of Lesson Two
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