Learn to Read Arabic from Scratch: Lesson Five
This lesson will cover: four consonants, and a glottal stop and pause:


This consonant is pronounced exactly like  k in English key, leak, book.  The name of this letter is       كاف  kaaf . It is connective
Listen to the following items and try to imitate and read noticing the various shapes and positions of Kaaf.

 

ق    is a voiceless uvular stop; it is produced by making contact between the back of the tongue and the uvula ( the tip of the soft palate, projecting into the pharynx.  It differs from  ك   in the following ways.
ك  , like English k, is aspirated, while   ق    is not.
ك   and English k are pronounced further forward in the mouth after front vowels ( e.g., ee in keep, a in candy) and further back after back vowels ( e.g., au in caught, oo in cook).   ق  , on the other hand is always uvular.
 ق   , like velarized consonants, goes with the back pronunciation of vowels, while   ك    goes with the front ones:   كاد     is pronounced with the vowel of cad while    قاد  is pronounced with the vowel of cod.

In practicing the pronunciation of  ق  , say, for example, caught, cod, called but using the deepest part of the tongue when pronouncing the k sound.
Listen to the following items and notice the difference between kaaf and qaaf.
 
And here is another group

 
Qaaf is a connective letter so it comes in four positions as other connective letters.
Now you try reading these words

This consonant is like the sound of j and dg in the English word judge . It is called jiim    ج     . It is connector and therefore it appears in all positions:
Try to read these words. Listen to the recording to check your reading.


خ  x is not a modern English sound. It is called xaa?   خاء . It does occur in many other languages, such as ch in German nacht, x in Russian xoroso, etc. It is a voiceless velar fricative. It is produced by narrowing the passageway between the back of the tongue and the velum, so creating friction as the air passes through; the vocal cords are at rest. Try to produce  خ      using the very back of the tongue to partially cut off the air stream as you exhale. خ  x differs from   ك  k is that the latter completely stops the air stream in its passage from lungs to mouth, then releases it. خ  x almost blocks it off, but not quite, giving its fricative effect. practice by saying aka, ak-ka, ax-xa – that enough to let air through;  خ x  should result. Listen to the recording and try to see the contrast between these pairs of words
 
In writing خ  x is exactly like the letter  ج   j in all shapes, except that it is characterized by one dot above rather than one dot below. It has the following shapes.
Read and notice the same  shapes of   خ   x  in all positions

The glottal stop Ɂ  ء   is not presented by a letter. it is represented by the sign  ء   called hamza.  This consonant sound is heard in English, German and other European  languages, but not represented in the spelling. It is produced by blocking off the air stream at the top of the windpipe, and then releasing it. this is what happens when you take a deep breath, hold it, and then release it. It occurs as the “catch in the throat” in English expressions such as “uh-oh!” It is also used in English to clarify syllable division, as in “I didn’t say ‘some mice’ I said ‘ some ice’, “ where it is preceded by glottal stop. Practice glottal stop by saying a series of vowel, e.g. ah, with a clear break between them; there should be a glottal stop at each break.

English words beginning with vowels are often pronounced with glottal stop, but we are conditioned to it and do not hear it. In Arabic every word beginning with a vowel is pronounced with initial glottal stop. As a matter of fact, no syllable in Arabic cam begin with a vowel; every syllable begins with some consonant or other, including glottal stop. In the following drill, listen for the glottal stops at the beginning of each word.
 
Hamza is sometimes written over or under certain letters, called “seats”, or else aloof. In this lesson we take up the writing of hamza as the first sound of the word, and in the following lesson we deal with it in the other parts of the word. At the beginning of the word, hamza is always written with ا  as its seat; if the following vowel is kasra, hamza is written under   ا   , thus  إ    . Otherwise, hamza is written over its chair, thus:  أ
Now try reading the following words. You can listen to the recording to hear the glottal sound of hamza.
Arabic words can pronounced in either of two ways: in their FULL FORM or is their PAUSE FORM. In full pronunciation the word in its entirety; for example, the full form of    أَنْتَ  or ( أنت) is Ɂanta . The pause form is a shortened one where the short final vowel is not pronounced. ; thus the pasue form of  أَنتَ    (Ɂanta ) is (Ɂant).
In similar manner, the full form of أَيْنَ is Ɂayna but the pause one is Ɂayn. If the word ends in nunation, n is not pronounced either. For example, the pause form of طالبٌ   Ťaalibun is Ťaalib and the pause form of  طالبٍ Ťaalibin  is also Ťaalib.

In the case of accusative nunation (an), e.g., طالباً   Ťaaliban , the pause form is spelled    ا   where  ا  has the value of aa, e.g.,  طالباً Ťaalibaa .


The full form is used when the word in question is followed without interruption by another word, for example,  أَنْتَ     in أَنْتَ  سامي     ‘you are Sami'. / Ɂanta  saami/. Whereas the pause form / Ɂant  saami/ on the other hand is used when there is any interruption or pause takes place after the word in question; this of course includes full stop at the end of a sentence. Thus,  أَنْتَ  Ɂanta is pronounced in its pause from (Ɂant) in the following sentences, where a dash – is used to indicate an interruption in speech: 
 
Pronouns and verbs are marked for gender in Arabic; for example, أَنْتَ   is ‘you’ speaking to a male while  أَنْتِ   is the form in speaking to a female. the pause form of these is, technically speaking, /Ɂant/. However, to avoid confusion, verbs and pronouns in the second person feminine singular always retain the final  kasra  in pause as well as in the full pronunciation. Thus, the pause and full forms of أَنْتِ   are /Ɂanti/ ‘you’.
Read each of the following sentences twice: first, with no pauses or interruptions, and secondly, with pauses at every dash. Listen carefully to spot the pause and full form.
In the recording below you can listen to each sentence of the above said twice: pause form said first and the full second.
 
Here is another group of simple sentences said in both forms, pause and full.

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